Brenda  Brown

Figure 1-Fountain of Youth, miniature fr De Sphaera, redcd.tif
IN RELATION TO MUSIC, the formal vocabulary that landscape architecture shares with architecture is less important than the stuff of landscapes: landscapes' interacting biotic and abiotic elements. In landscapes, sounds of the ebb and flow of other life, of ecosystem processes, and of a wide-range of human activities are often inescapable. Landscapes are spatially and sonically more porous than buildings; they are pervasive and ubiquitous.

To consider landscape architecture and music, it is necessary first to consider landscapes and music. To consider landscapes is to consider changing content more than frozen form, and any insight into the landscapes found in music is likely tied to music's historical origins in nature, that is in the stuff of landscapes. If the places where early humans dwelled can be considered landscapes, then we can say the natural elements and nonhuman creatures that belonged to those landscapes and made sound provided both materials for musical instruments and examples of sounds other than the human voice.
However, landscapes exist as ideas and experiences as well as physical spaces. They exist as settings, theaters, and images, incorporating literary, dramatic, and political factors. Landscapes exist as products of human societies and cultures -- as unfolding spaces known through travel and motion, as static and shifting images, and as expressions of idealized ecosystems with portents of habitability or inhabitability. Any landscape architecture project might highlight one or more such experiences.

Earlier versions of the word landscape appear in Old English, perhaps as early as the sixth century, referring to human-constructed spaces of or on the land. However, our contemporary use and understanding seem to date to the late sixteenth century, when Dutch artists called their paintings of inland and rural scenes landschaps.   This adaptation coincided with landscapes' increasing visibility in Western Europe. They appeared as backgrounds in paintings and masques and were described and portrayed in the proliferating literature that accompanied new interests in geography and travel.  In Italy, the garden began to emerge as an art form.  By the eighteenth century, the word "landscape" was applied to physical landscapes in addition to their painted representations. While this usage marked landscapes' renewed association with physical spaces, it still emphasized their connection to visual experience and representation. Alexander Pope, after all, asserted that "all gardening is landscape painting," while also advising us to "Consult the Genius of the Place in all."  In England, landscape gardening became, like the other arts, a subject significant unto itself, subject to abstraction, criticism, and cross-referencing in the other arts. Landscapes became subjects for composers and philosophers as well as painters and designers.

Visual experience and visual representations continue to strongly influence conceptions of landscape and landscape architecture practice today. And, indeed, many of the most obvious examples of landscapes in music are somehow
visual. Today's range of perspectives on and understandings of "land- scape" means that the Old English sense is
Figure 2- epidaurus.tif
 In what follows, I begin to explore the implications that these overlapping conceptions have for music and landscape architecture. These implications involve literature, painting, dance, theater, and film, as well as design. I end by presenting a few of my own compositions informed by music and landscape architecture, compositions of landscape and sound whose content can be controlled only partially and whose musicians include nonhuman creatures.
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again applicable, if only metaphorically. "Human-constructed spaces of and onthe land" may now encompass constructions of our individual and collective imaginations.
* Beginning of chapter by Brenda J. Brown.  In Music in Architecture / Architecture in Music (Center 18), edited by Michael Benedikt.  2014.  (Austin: Center for American Architecture and Design.  The University of Texas at Austin.)  Top image: Fountain of Youth, miniature from De spheara, thirteenth century book by Johannes de Sacrobosco; Biblioteca Estense, Modena, Italy; bottom image, Theater at Epidauras in relation to the surrounding landscape. (Photograph, German Architecture Institute, Athens, from Bieber, The History of Greek and Roman Theater, 1971, p. 72)